LNG import infrastructure on the German North Sea coast, taking into account particularly suitable port locations

The analysis of LNG import terminals on the German North Sea coast should show the necessity of LNG import infrastructures for Germany and the possibilities of how an economic concept can be implemented in the regulatory environment. Contrary to the prevailing opinion in the industry, it was shown that, in view of the drastic decline in natural gas volumes from traditional delivery regions such as Germany, Denmark, UK and also the Netherlands, a narrowing to a duopoly of state suppliers Norway and Russia will develop in the next few years. Therefore, an expansion of the delivery quantities and the supply sources through LNG imports is a sensible development of the German natural gas market. It was shown that, despite high investments, an LNG import terminal is economically more favourable than investing in new natural gas pipelines to new supply sources, because their long-term use and depreciation is questionable in view of the future decline in the use of fossil fuels due to climate policy. It was also demonstrated that, despite other European LNG terminals that are not fully utilized, these capacities do not represent a secure supply base for the German market. Since the market was of the opinion, in view of the LNG import terminal projects that failed in the past, that there was no demand for new capacities either, commercial models were developed that invite international LNG producers and traders to book capacity instead of just national importers. The proposed concepts were subjected to an international market test on the one hand with German natural gas traders, importers, international LNG traders, LNG producers and suppliers in order to demonstrate the basic feasibility and on the other hand presented to potential terminal operators and investors with positive feedback. Necessary regulatory corrections to the Energy Industry Act and its ordinances were addressed. A selection and transparent suitability test of various port locations including grid connection and design of technical concepts, especially fixed land-based systems and a floating terminal (FSRU) were examined, analysed in terms of costs and tariffs and presented with justification. The chances for LNG sales potential as maritime and truck fuel, ditto in industry and transport, were forecast and a distribution infrastructure was proposed. As the largest sectoral sales market, the maritime forecast was analysed and forecast in detail based on the port calls in German ports, and the use of LNG-powered ships for individual ship types and the corresponding LNG sales were forecast. In-depth interviews were carried out with numerous stakeholders. The alternatives to the bunkering of ships were shown and the probable solutions presented. The long-term chances of importing renewable LNG as an alternative to fossil LNG were discussed. The planning for a project implementation of an LNG FSRU terminal in Wilhelmshaven was drawn up.